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Multiple Intelligences Approach

Dr. Howard Gardner is a psychologist and Professor at Harvard University’s Graduate School of Education, as well as co-Director of Harvard Project Zero.

“An intelligence is the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings.” – Howard Gardner FRAMES OF MIND (1983)

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Howard Gardner claims that all human beings have multiple intelligences. These multiple intelligences can be nurtured and strengthened, or ignored and weakened. He believes each individual has nine intelligences:

  1.  Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence (Word Smart) — well-developed verbal skills and sensitivity to the sounds, meanings and rhythms of words

  2.  Mathematical-Logical Intelligence (Number / Reasoning Smart) — ability to think conceptually and abstractly, and capacity to discern logical or numerical patterns

  3.  Musical Intelligence (Music Smart) — ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch and timber

  4.  Visual-Spatial Intelligence (Picture Smart) — capacity to think in images and pictures, to visualize accurately and abstractly

  5.  Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (Body Smart) — ability to control one’s body movements and to handle objects skillfully

  6.  Interpersonal Intelligence (People Smart) — capacity to detect and respond appropriately to the moods, motivations and desires of others.

  7.  Intrapersonal Intelligence (Self Smart) — capacity to be self-aware and in tune with inner feelings, values, beliefs and thinking processes

  8.  Naturalist Intelligence (Nature Smart) — ability to recognize and categorize plants, animals and other objects in nature

  9.  Existential Intelligence — sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning of life, why do we die, and how did we get here.

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